A Hydrodynamic Modelling Framework for Strangford Lough Part 1: Tidal Model

Abstract:

Hydrodynamic models are a powerful tool that can be used by a wide range of end users to assist in predicting the effects of both physical and biological processes on local environmental conditions. This paper describes the development of a tidal model for Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, a body of water renowned for the location of the first grid-connected tidal turbine, SeaGen, as well as the UK’s third Marine Nature Reserve. Using MIKE 21 modelling software, the development, calibration and performance of the model are described in detail. Strangford Lough has a complex flow pattern with high flows through the Narrows (~3.5 m/s) linking the main body of the Lough to the Irish Sea and intricate flow patterns around the numerous islands. With the aid of good quality tidal and current data obtained throughout the Lough during the model development, the surface elevation and current magnitude between the observed and numerical model were almost identical with model skill >0.98 and >0.84 respectively. The applicability of the model is such that it can be used as an important tool for the prediction of important ecological processes as well as engineering applications within Strangford Lough. 

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Queens University Belfast

Author: Dr Bjoern Elsaesser

Accessible Wave Energy Resource Atlas Ireland 2005

Abstract:

Publication describes an initial comparison between several years of hourly wave forecasts (using WAM) on a grid of points located off the Irish coast with corresponding records from a number of buoys installed in recent years.

Publication Date: 2005

Organisation: Marine Institute

Author: ESB International

ADCP Deployments Achill and Shannon Estuary

Abstract:

ADCP deployment results from Achill and Shannon Estuary in the summer 2004.

Publication Date: 2004

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: AquaFact

All Island Grid Study - Grid Overview

Abstract:

All Island Grid Study - Grid Overview 

Publication Date: 2008

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Analysis of Impacts and Benefits of All Island Grid

Abstract:

Analysis of Impacts and Benefits of All Island Grid

Publication Date: 2008

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Analysis of the Potential Economic Benefits of Developing Ocean Energy in Ireland

Abstract:

An analysis of the potential economic benefits of developing ocean energy in Ireland.


Publication Date: 2006

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Appendix to Accessible Wave Energy Resource Atlas: Ireland 2005

Abstract:

Appendix to the Accessible Wave Energy Resource Atlas.

Publication Date: 2005

Organisation: Marine Institute

Author: ESB Interational

Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site Environmental Impact Statement

Abstract:

Full details on the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) completed for the Belmullet AMETS foreshore licence application.  EIS is divided into appropriate chapters 1-20 with Appendices 1-12 outlining the various environmental surveys undertaken for the project.

Publication Date: 2011

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Consultative agencies in Ireland for tidal generation.

Abstract:

Consultative agencies in Ireland for tidal generation.

Publication Date: 2005

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Cost Benefit Analysis of Government Support Options for Offshore Wind Energy

Abstract:

A comparative analysis of the costs and benefits to the State of implementing three support options for Offshore Wind Energy (OWE) in Irish waters.

Publication Date: 2002

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Byrne Ó Cléirigh

Criteria for Gate 3 Renewable Generator Offers & Related Matters - Direction to System Operators

Abstract:

To take account of the increase to the Government’s renewable generation.

Publication Date: 2008

Organisation: Commission for Energy Regulation

Author: Commission for Energy Regulation

DSO Non GPA Process

Abstract:

Gate process (GPA) is most common way to connect renewable generators to the grid; applications are collected and processed in batches. Besides that, there is the sequential or non Gate approach  Connection offers are issued in sequential order according to the application deemed complete date of application, the Gate queue is thus skipped Non GPA process is subject to CER approval, certain types of generation are preapproved. DSO offer usually within 90 business days.

Publication Date: 2010

Organisation: ESB Networks

Author: ESB Networks

Electrical Aspects of Electrical Generation from Tidal Currents

Abstract:

Tidal Resource analysis from electrical generation.

Publication Date: 2007

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Enablers Task Force on Marine Spatial Planning

Abstract:

The Marine Coordination Group will establish an independently chaired Task Force for a specific period, with defined Terms of Reference, comprising participants from a broad range of expertise and knowledge (e.g. Departments, Agencies, Higher Education and Private Sector). The recommendations/outputs of the Task Force will be presented to the MCG and a decision on appropriate implementation will be made. 

Publication Date: 2015-07-15

Organisation: Marine Institute

Author: Marine Coordination Group

Foreshore Licensing and Leasing for Marine Renewables Projects - MRIA White Paper

Abstract:

Ireland’s offshore renewable energy resources have significant development potential and are considered among the best in the world. The practicably exploitable wave energy resource is estimated at more than 75% of Ireland’s 2006 electricity demand while our tidal resource also has significant potential. The Government’s Energy White Paper (2007) includes targets of 75MW generated from ocean energy sources by 2012 and 500MW by 2020. In order for Ireland to achieve these progressive targets and optimise the socio-economic benefits associated with exploitation of its marine energy resource, it is critical that public and regulatory policy enacts effective delivery mechanisms.

Key to delivery is the implementation of an appropriate Foreshore Licencing and Leasing process. The existing process, currently under review, operates on a ‘first come, first served’ basis which is felt to be inappropriate for appropriate development of the resource in the national interest. In light of the current review, due to be concluded in 2009, MRIA has prepared this Paper to communicate the Industry view on an effective Foreshore Licencing and Leasing process for marine renewable projects. 

 

Publication Date: 2009

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Ireland Transmission System 2013

Abstract:

EirGrid SONI all-island transmission system for 400, 275, 220 and 110 KV electricity infrastructure.

Publication Date: 2013

Organisation: EirGrid

Author: EirGrid

Irelands National Marine Test and Demonstation Facility

Abstract:

Irelands National Marine Test and Demonstation Facility Pg 13-14

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Green Energy Publishing

Author: SmartBay Ireland

Ireland's Sustainable Energy Supply Chain Opportunity

Abstract:

A coordinated approach to supporting sustainable energy supply chains will promote economic growth and create thousands of jobs in Ireland. 

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Irish Ports Offshore Renewable Energy Services (IPORES): A Review of Irish Ports Offshore Capability in Relation to Requirements for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry

Abstract:

Irish Ports Offshore Renewable Energy Services (IPORES): A Review of Irish Ports Offshore Capability in Relation to Requirements for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry. 

Publication Date: 2012

Organisation: Irish Maritime Development Office

Author: Irish Maritime Development Office

Maritime Infrastructure Development Priorities to Support Ireland’s Future Ocean Energy Industry

Abstract:

The past year has seen a turnaround in the fortunes of ocean energy in the Republic of Ireland with the publication in February of the Government’s Ocean Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP). The new policy recognised that the growth of ocean energy would require investment in maritime infrastructure - ships and, in particular, port facilities.

Publication Date: December 2014

Organisation: Marine Renewables Industry Association

Author: MRIA

MRIA Requirements for Oceanographic Measurements, Data Processing and Modelling

Abstract:

The Marine Institute and INFOMAR (the joint venture between the Marine Institute and the Geological Survey of Ireland which succeeded the Irish National Seabed Survey) have in the past and continue today to perform an excellent job at providing the marine industry with data and measurements. This document is intended to interpret Marine Renewables Industry Requirements and then to decide best how these can be delivered. This may be done by one of the agencies such as the Marine Institute and INFOMAR or a new/existing commercial entity. 

Publication Date: 2009

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Non-technical barriers to wave energy development, comparing progress in Ireland and Europe

Abstract:

This paper outlined the non-technical barriers to wave energy development, comparing progress in Ireland and Continental Europe.    

Publication Date: 2009

Organisation: HMRC

Author: HMRC

Non-technical barriers to wave energy in Europe

Abstract:

This document describes the non-technical barriers which the wave energy industry will encounter after the prototype research and development phase is complete.

Publication Date: 2009

Organisation: HMRC

Author: HMRC

Ocean Energy in Ireland

Abstract:

Ocean energy, contained in the world’s waves and marine tidal currents, provides an untapped source of renewable energy and this publication focuses on ocean energy in Ireland in 2005.

Publication Date: 2005

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Ocean Energy Initial Development Zones White Paper

Abstract:

The opportunity to derive energy from the Ocean is significant in Ireland, both from Wave and from Tidal sources. The potential is such that Ocean Energy represents a critical opportunity to create substantial wealth and employment on this island over the next twenty years and beyond. Key to this transformation of the island of Ireland into ‘Europe’s Battery’ is the achievement of the target set in the Republic by Government to have 500MW of Wave and Tidal capacity in operation by 2021.

The Marine Renewables Industry Association- which represents Ireland’s Marine Renewables industry in the Ocean Energy fields of Wave and Tidal- recognises that achieving the 500MW target over the next ten years will require a major coordinated effort across all Government Departments and Agencies and a focus on a small number of sea areas for developments towards 2020. The Association proposes in this Paper that four Initial Development Zones (IDZs) for Ocean Energy be prioritised by Government and that efforts to achieve the 2020 target be focused in these zones. The Paper demonstrates that this proposal is consistent with broad Government economic development policy as well as policies in Energy, Spatial Planning and Regional Planning. 

This White Paper hails the progress made in Ocean Energy in Ireland to date, highlights the challenges which must be overcome and proposes measures to expedite further development. Specifically, this Paper identifies the priority Initial Development Zones, sets out the assumptions underlying them and indicates the next steps to be taken- urgent action, notably in Consenting where a Round to provide for initial exploration and exploitation of the IDZ’s is critical, is sought.

Publication Date: 2010

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan

Abstract:

A framework for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Offshore Renewable Energy Resource.

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Natura Impact Statement

Abstract:

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Natura Impact Statement.

Publication Date: 2011

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: AECOM

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Main Report

Abstract:

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Main Report

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: SEAI, CMRC, Metoc

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Main Report Addendum

Abstract:

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Main Report Addendum.

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: SEAI, CMRC, Metoc

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement

Abstract:

Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement.

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Author: AECOM

Offshore Wind Energy and Industrial Development in the Republic of Ireland

Abstract:

Offshore Wind Energy and Industrial Development in the Republic of Ireland report commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland to support the Government of Ireland and SEAI in analysing and developing targets, programmes and policies in connection with implementation of wind energy in the Republic of Ireland.

This study has examined: 

  • Task A: Key requirements for Ireland to meet potential future targets for the deployment of offshore wind energy. 
  • Task B: Potential opportunities for the development of an industry supplying the wind energy market in Ireland and overseas. 

Publication Date: 2004

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Risø National Laboratory

Optimal control of wave-energy point absorbers

Abstract:

Optimal control of wave-energy point absorbers: A novel control strategy based on Model Predictive Control.    

Publication Date: 2010

Organisation: HMRC

Author: HMRC

Oriel Windfarm Ltd. Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Impact Statement

Abstract:

Oriel Windfarm Environmental Impact Statement.

Publication Date: 2007

Organisation: Oriel Windfarm Ltd.

Author: Aquafact

Our Ocean Wealth consultation by Imerc Ireland's Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster

Abstract:

Our Ocean Wealth consultation by Imerc, Ireland's Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster.

Publication Date: 2012

Organisation: IMERC

Author: IMERC

Our Ocean Wealth Enablers Task Force

Abstract:

This report of the Development Task Force, represents the culmination of a significant body of work carried out by the members of the task force over 2014-2015. This work was undertaken at an exciting time in the development of the Irish marine economy. The State has set itself ambitious targets in its integrated marine plan, Harnessing our Ocean Wealth. Government is attaching great importance to improving its regulatory processes so as to at once both protect our precious marine resource and yet realise its potential to contribute to Ireland’s economic recovery. Significant progress has been made in this regard. All the while, our capacity to understand and harness our ocean resource is growing through and emerging and energetic marine research community. 

Publication Date: 2015-07-10

Organisation: Marine Institute

Author: Marine Coordination Group

Research and Development and Ocean Energy

Abstract:

Ocean energy – wave and tidal generated electricity - is at the Research and Development, pre-commercial stage. Ireland has a significant effort underway in ocean energy R and D which represents a potential competitive advantage for the country particularly in light of other advantages such as the highly energy intensive wave resource, possible access to major markets through the Anglo Irish talks on electricity supply now underway and other factors.

This Paper records the views of the three key stakeholders in ocean energy R and D- Third Level institutions, Government Agencies and Industry. It sets out the boundaries to ocean energy at the present as discerned by these stakeholders and it identifies the five research priorities for the next few years: develop and grow the database; develop understanding of the economics of the industry; promote a series of projects to deal with practical engineering problems; continue to invest in infrastructure; and build the research effort into the environmental dimension to ocean energy. Overarching all of this is the need to provide funding for R and D in this (Government-determined) research priority area.

Publication Date: 2012

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Site Locations and Conservation Areas

Abstract:

Site Locations and Conservation Areas for Tidal energy resource in Ireland.

Publication Date: 2006

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Strangford Lough and the SeaGen Tidal Turbine

Abstract:

The background to and outcomes of the Environmental Monitoring Programme (EMP) required by statutory regulators for the deployment of the SeaGen tidal turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, an area with many conservation designations, are described. The EMP, which was set within the context of an adaptive management approach, considered possible effects of the device on local populations of seals and harbour porpoises, representative seabirds and benthic communities. The studies on seals were carried out on both local and regional scales. The ecological studies were complemented by detailed field and hydrodynamic modelling investigations together with a programme of mitigation measures designed to reduce collisions between seals and turbine rotors. In general only minor statistically significant changes in abundance, distribution and animal behaviour patterns were recorded, principally associated with small distributional shifts close to the turbine structure and with the likelihood that these changes were ecologically of little significance. The seal–rotor collision mitigation studies provided a base for the establishment of acceptable collision risk strategies. The EMP highlighted observational, methodological and statistical challenges in assessing the environmental consequences of marine energy devices. A brief review of related studies in Strangford Lough is included.

Publication Date: 2014

Organisation: Queens University Belfast

Author: Dr Bjoern Elsaesser

The Opportunity for Co-operation and Collaboration between Ireland and Scotland in Ocean Energy

Abstract:

Ireland, North and South, and Scotland are world leaders in the field of ocean energy and are endowed with substantial wave and tidal resources, excellent and growing Research and Development capacity and are home to many of the world’s leading companies in this field. Historically, Scotland has been ahead of Ireland in developing ocean energy, principally because of the strong commitment of Scottish political leaders to winning a commanding position for Scotland in the industry. On the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland has made commendable progress in exploiting its tidal resource but the Republic of Ireland has been the laggard despite its world-beating wave resource and its significant R&D effort. The position is changing in the Republic with positive signs of Government support including a new Bill to transform the consenting system (‘planning permission’) offshore while the Ocean Renewable Energy Development Plan is imminent.

Despite the progress, ocean energy in both Ireland and Scotland faces formidable challenges: the technology has a distance to travel before it reaches commercial ubiquity; the finance required to commercialise the technology is substantial; and there are significant issues of market access, particularly in Scotland, because, for example, wave and tidal resources tend to be distant from major grid capacity.

This Paper was drawn up to examine the scope for the various parties – particularly the Republic of Ireland and Scotland but also Northern Ireland– to work together. It is based on the views of a wide range of interests, mostly in Government and Industry, who expressed remarkably similar views regardless of geographical location. The Paper ends with a series of recommendations and suggests that these might form a series of work streams for the British Irish Council’s Marine Energy Committee. 

Publication Date: 2013

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

The Supply Chain for the Ocean Energy Industry in Ireland

Abstract:

Ireland has an unprecedented opportunity to build a position of strength as a supply chain to the world- wide ocean energy industry. The policy landscape – including required legislation and provision of a policy framework for ocean energy- is moving in a positive direction but a greater sense of urgency is required. Most importantly, Government is negotiating an export framework with the United Kingdom which could provide a market for all forms of Irish marine energy and exploit our formidable offshore energy natural resource with potentially significant new job creation.

The development of an export market with the UK would provide a market for Irish ocean energy, but enabling actions are still required. Firms in the supply chain are aware of the ocean energy opportunity but need the confidence which would be provided by more overt Government leadership of the sector and, most important, the development of real business opportunities.

In particular, the Irish Government needs to give the private sector the confidence to invest in ocean energy and enable business interests to build a base to serve world-wide markets for ocean energy equipment and services. This can be achieved through the provision of a: 

An allocation of ocean energy Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) to incentivise early investment

Clear consenting process administered by a single body (An Bord Pleanála) offering developers – whether of demonstration arrays or, later, of export oriented ocean energy farms - a clear route to a fully consented site...with a proactive landlord in the form of the Department of Environment, Community and Local Government

  • Capital grants regime which addresses the needs of device developers for substantial support at this critical emergent stage of ocean energy technology 
  • Clear route to grid access for demonstration arrays and, in time, ocean energy based electricity exporters.
  • A strong Ocean Renewable Energy Development Plan backed up by an implementation group with industry involvement 

The absence of any of the elements would be a severe impediment to the growth of ocean energy in Ireland.

Publication Date: 2013

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Third Level Education Needs of the Ocean Energy Industry

Abstract:

The island of Ireland faces an economically transformative opportunity in ocean energy generated from waves and tides. The independent SQW report forecasts substantial income and job potential, particularly in the 2020’s when ocean energy technology is likely to reach maturity and to be deployed on a commercial scale. The opportunity will be realised on two planes- enterprise (e.g. development of the supply chain in Ireland to support the industry not only here but elsewhere in Europe) and export (e.g. through interconnectors to the UK and elsewhere).

A key factor in determining Ireland’s success in this challenging industry will be the quality and availability of appropriately skilled graduates from the Universities and the Institutes of Technology and other bodies, notably in engineering. This Paper presents the findings of a review of this issue by the Marine Renewables Industry Association with expert bodies and with those involved in the emerging ocean energy industry. The principal findings were:

  • There is substantial capacity in engineering education on the island
  • The supply of engineers is reasonable at present although shortages are discerned in the key field of electrical engineering and there is concern about the overall numbers entering the profession
  • The opportunities in ocean energy will be modest to 2015 at least but could be very significant in the 2020s
  • Ocean energy will principally require engineers with a robust, core degree in the traditional disciplines of civil, electrical and mechanical engineering.
  • Little value is attached by the ocean energy industry to the various ‘energy engineering’ qualifications increasingly on offer 
  • Providing real experience of working in the tough offshore environment to engineers is a big challenge for ocean energy
  • The industry- and other experts- would like to see a Masters degree programme in ocean energy engineering which draws off the expertise in specific fields of individual colleges and which is designed in conjunction with the industry to the highest international standards
  • The MRIA will work with appropriate bodies to address the issues identified by this Paper.

Publication Date: 2011

Organisation: MRIA

Author: MRIA

Tidal and Current Energy Resources in Ireland

Abstract:

The Tidal and Current Energy Resources in Ireland report commissioned by the Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland aims to:

  • To identify areas which have the potential for cost effective exploitation of the tidal stream and marine current energy resource. 
  • To prepare detailed analyses of areas considered to have the greatest potential for the extraction of tidal energy. 
  • To calculate the tidal and marine current energy resource available with existing technology and to assess the additional contribution which future technology is expected to make. 
  • To compare current evaluation of the energy resource with previous estimates. 
  • To evaluate deep water areas (exceeding 40m) which have high current velocities for the purpose of developing second-generation deep water devices. 
  • To extend the methodology for estimating the renewable energy resource in Ireland to provide a medium term development potential (or estimated contribution) for the years 2010 and 2020, including the anticipated resource/cost curve per unit of energy produced. 



Publication Date: 2007

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Turbine array locations and turbine layouts for tidal and marine current energy resources in Ireland.

Abstract:

Turbine array locations and turbine layouts for tidal and marine current energy resources in Ireland.

Publication Date: 2006

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Wave and Tidal Energy Market Deployment Strategy in Europe

Abstract:

Despite an investment crisis brought on by the biggest economic recession Europe has seen since the Second World War, the EU is on track to fulfil its ambitious 2020 renewable energy targets. In 2012, Europe’s renewable energy industry employed 1.2 million people and generated €130 billion of economic activity1, the vast majority of which did not exist just one decade ago. The reasons for this are straightforward. Targets at the EU level have provided long-term regulatory stability, matched with EU funding, which reduces risk by advancing technologies along readiness levels. Nationallevel targets in every Member State have resulted in governments putting in place capital and revenue support mechanisms, creating a vibrant market for renewable energy and generating volume production which has driven  remarkable cost reduction across the most mature renewable energy technologies. Although it has now taken the first generation of renewable energy technologies to competitive levels, Europe still needs to diversify its electricity supply further if it is to meet its 2050 policy objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 – 95% below 1990 levels2. Increased energy generation from renewable sources has been identified by the European Commission as a ‘no-regrets option’ for meeting these objectives3. Wave and tidal energy are the next generation of renewable energy technologies, and they will be needed if Europe is to meet its decarbonisation targets. These technologies can also support better grid integration for all renewables. Wave and tidal projects can, for example, be developed in areas of low solar or wind resource. Electricity generation from wave and tidal is also out of sync with other renewable technologies, and will provide further balancing effects for European transmission systems. However, binding renewable energy targets for the post-2020 period are necessary in order to provide clarity for investors. In a tough economic climate, and without binding targets, the incentive to shift from the status quo will be significantly weakened. Wave and tidal energy technologies must now find a route to market in more uncertain times than their predecessors.

Publication Date: June 2014

Organisation: Ocean Energy Europe

Author: Ocean Energy Europe

Wave Energy Policy Ireland and Denmark study

Abstract:

This paper uses Ireland as a case study due to the size of its resource (up to 21 TWh1 per annum accessible resource according to ESBI (2005) and the extent of ambition behind the stated Government intent to ‘make Ireland a world leader for research, development and deployment of ocean energy technologies (DCENR (formerly DCMNR) 2007).    

Publication Date: 2007

Organisation: Hydraulic and Maritime Research Centre

Author: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources

Why Wave Energy - Market Driver Analysis for Investors and Policy Makers

Abstract:

This paper discusses why an investor would consider wave energy as an investment option.

Publication Date: 2005

Organisation: HMRC

Author: HMRC

Wind Energy Road Map 2011-2050

Abstract:

Development of renewable energy, including both offshore and onshore wind, is central to Irish energy policy.

Publication Date: 2011

Organisation: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

Author: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland